Part 1: Summary Critique

hello in this video we’ll be talking about critique critical evaluation and how to specifically write a summary critique so the first thing that you want to think about is what does it really mean to be critical remember that there is a difference between criticizing and thinking critically about a text and then we’re also going to talk a little bit about what it means to evaluate when you’re being critical you’re questioning the information and the opinions in a text so your answers to those questions after you ask them may cast the text in a positive or negative light a lot of times critiques end up being a bit of a mixed response they might have some points that they saw in the article that they’re critiquing that they felt were good and others that they feel need for their research so remember you’re you’re wanting to evaluate the text in order to make some kind of contribution to the corpus evaluation means determining the strengths and the weaknesses of a text based on specific criteria so we’ll talk a bit later in this video series about how to determine what criteria you should use when you’re evaluating a text for critique the first part of a summary critique that you’re going to write is the summary which comprises the introduction the introduction is going to contain these parts you’ll introduce the author and the topic of the article that you’re critiquing you’ll present the aim or purpose of that article you’ll summarize the author’s key findings and ideas and then you’ll also include your own you the reviewer your own reaction to the work and that’s going to be your thesis statement so let’s have a look at each of these parts the very first sentence in the introduction of your critique should contain the source and the main idea of that source not of your critique but of the original source so here’s a sample in their October 2010 r2 on the daily Egyptian posher defends the dissertation against plagiarism charges authors Wilson and Crawford report the SIU president Glenn Poe sherds 1984 doctoral dissertation contained many examples of blatant plagiarism so you can see here is the date here is the publication that it was in here is the actual name of the article the author’s name and then this is the subject and you’ll notice they’re not providing any kind of judgment any kind of evaluation of the topic they’re not saying that the author’s were right or that the authors were wrong they’re simply supplying what the main idea was and that’s really important because you want your summary to be unbiased and neutral so here’s a few other sample first sentences just so you can see it put in a few different structures and you’ll notice all of them have the author’s name the date the name of the article and then they’ll end with the main idea of that article during this introduction you want to remain neutral you’re not ready yet to reveal to the reader your opinion about the text so you also want to be careful not to provide a mixed message about what kind of evaluation you’re going to be writing so just to give you an example here is the exact same introductory summary and you can see here they’ve used this word alleges and here they’ve used the word assumed so if you’ve watched the video on denotation and connotation you already know that words can have emotional associations and when you think of this word alleges is it’s kind of like someone has committed a crime and this word assumes and it’s denotation actually means someone who says something without necessarily having proof so you can see you got a denotation and connotation problem with these two words so in order to do this so that you have an unbiased summary a better way might be to say something like explores the possibility instead you could also were use a word like discovers or examines scrutinizes investigates researches so there’s a lot of words a lot of options for you you just want to be really careful not to give hints that you know either way about what your opinion of this article is just yet after you write the first sentence you’re going to provide a more extended summary a few important things to remember when you’re writing the summary your your summary the length of your summary is going to depend on the length of the article itself so if you’re summarizing a one-page article you should be able to do that in a sub for a summary critique in a paragraph if you’ve got you know a six-page article it might take you three paragraphs to provide the summary of the main points remember that when you’re providing the summary of the main points you’re you need to avoid specific details so there shouldn’t really be quotes at this point you’re not going to be making any points you are just over viewing the points that were actually made in the article and then presenting the aim of the text or whatever the key argument is will be the last part so first you’ve got your sentence then that introduces the author then you’ve got the main points and then whatever the key argument was or perhaps the key finding that will come last keep it neutral avoid specific details and again the length of it can vary finally after you’ve finished the summary portion the last sentence in your summary you’re going to be transitioning now into the critique so that’s going to be your thesis statement it’s a brief statement of your own evaluation of the article that you have read this can be positive positive or positive negative but never negative positive and what I mean by that let me show you some examples so you can see in this sample introduction we’ve got the first sentence that has the article the author’s name and all of the information about it and then what he does okay what it’s about then you can see it would go into the main parts of the article which I haven’t included here but depending on what the article is about and how long it’s going to be and then based on that evidence what the final conclusion was and then your own transitional thesis would look something like this while Underhill’s article raises a timely and important issue now that is a positive statement about Underhill’s so that’s what I mean when I say positive positive or positive negative you can see here he neglects to that’s our first negative word in this entire summary critique he neglects to and so that is a positive negative transitional thesis for a critique if I were going to say you know Underhill’s article not only raises a timely and important issue but he also and then obviously that’s going to be a positive positive I’m going to be really focusing in the article about you know what a good job he did and so it’s not that nowhere in my if I have a positive positive thesis it doesn’t necessarily mean that nowhere in my critique am I going to provide any weaknesses or suggestions for future research based on Underhill’s article but it means that the majority you know for the most part my article is going to be pretty positive on the other hand if you have a positive negative then you can expect a critique that is primarily negative so I’m just going to show you two research articles one that I think is not so good at providing their summary and another one that I think did a little bit better job so in the introduction here they say in 2004 it was announced they talked about this border collie from Germany but they don’t actually say they say science had validated their belief but they don’t explicitly say who these researchers were and what article it is that they’re talking about even though it becomes clear if you’re familiar with the topic that they are talking about the Kaminsky and bloom research related to Rico the border collie who they thought could fast map so the first thing that they’re missing is this key sentence where you’re supposed to have all of the information about the original article and that’s really important because if someone reads your critique they want to be able to decide for themselves whether or not they agree with you and they can’t do that unless you give them the information that they need in order to find the original source and then the next thing that I think this article does wrong is they really use a lot of evaluative language in their summary you know just kind of saying the public lapped it up and you know this enthralled and and sort of making it seem very fantastical and not possible so they have revealed quite a bit about the way they feel about it in the initial introduction and then the last thing that I think that they do wrong I guess I will say wrong I don’t like it is that they don’t provide a positive- thesis they’re really you know any time you’re going to critique someone who you want to show respect to them you want to show that yes you know I understand this person has put a lot of time into their research even though I don’t agree and so by having a positive- thesis instead of a negative negative thesis you’re sort of tipping their hat your hat to them and saying yes you know I respect you however I would like to kindly disagree with you and it’s just much more polite than just saying I think you suck and yes you suck you’re wrong so those are this is an example of one that I don’t think did a very great job on their introduction and let’s have a look at another one so this is a critique of the article that we just looked at and I think they’ve done a much better job with their introduction you can see they start right away in the beginning here’s the author’s name here’s where the article appeared here’s what happened and I want to point out an important point about the language that’s used here he’s saying makes claims that she calls preposterous outlandish okay obviously preposterous and outlandish are evaluative language however this author Loxton is not saying that Peterson is outlandish or preposterous he’s only quoting what she said in order to provide a clear summary of the feelings that she put forth in her article if that makes sense so it’s okay to have evaluative language that belongs to the author you’re critiquing in your summary but it’s not okay to have evaluative language that are your own opinions and thoughts about that article so the next thing they do is they talk a little bit about the points so you can see here’s the summary the main points that she made and then he provides a transition right about here so you can see his summary is pretty short it’s really only this first sentence so you can see the summary kind of ends here and then he he doesn’t so much have a positive negative or negative negative thesis it’s a little bit more complex than that and I think one of the reasons for the complexity is that this is a critique of a critique and not a summary critique of a research study which Peterson is actually critiquing the original research study and then here Loxton is critiquing Peterson who critiqued the research and so but you’ll also notice that even though he’s not really positive he does provide I think adequate hedging this strong dismissal seems odd you know he’s kind of using us into okay now wait a minute which is exactly what I’m talking about when I say you need to think critically about a text you need to ask questions and then you need to weigh the strengths and weaknesses so it’s almost like you’re hearing him sort of questioning the Peterson article in his introduction and then he starts starts really making points in his next paragraph so I hope that helps you understand the introduction part of a summary critique

How To Write A Research Paper Fast – Research Paper Writing Tips

how to write a research paper fast through the course of school and sometimes your career you have to write a research paper at one time or another usually you know enough about what to write however writing is seldom anyone’s favorite way to spend time in the pileup of work writing often sinks to the bottom of priorities it crunch time you then need to double up in your efforts to make the deadline only the knowledge of how to write a research paper fast can save you for school a research paper demonstrates the learning and knowledge gained from class it is therefore important to show your teacher that you have studied well and applied your learning in a way that is gainful for you a well-written research paper will serve not only to reinforce your learning it could be useful for others as a source of information reference in phases for other studies as well hence your paper must be well-written well prepared and well examined and it must be submitted on time here are guidelines to write your research paper 1 determine how much time you have and realistically divide it roughly into several important increments 5% determining your thesis statement 5% writing it down 15% writing an outline of arguments and counter-arguments 25% research 40% actual writing and 10% polishing this is just to give you an idea you can adjust the time as needed for example you may a lot more time for research and writing to decide on your thesis statement the thesis is the meet the foundation of your research paper you want it to be solid and strong focus your mind on what you want to say clarify your idea and encapsulate it in your mind as much as possible make it to be something you firmly believe in it will be much easier to write about something you believe in your heart to be true rather than something you doubt three right down your thesis statement make it succinct clear and sure as you move on to writing the outline write your introduction to make the reader know why you came up with a thesis make the introduction interesting thought-provoking in detention grabbing to draw your teacher and the reader into further reading four write your outline think of arguments to support your thesis and write the ideas out in short sentences write as fast as the thoughts occur to you imagine that you are talking with a friend convincing him of your point of view and then write down your line of reasoning also think up of possible rebuttals to your documents or other points of view and then counter these remember you are writing only the outline so don’t write in paragraphs just yet keep items in bullet points in brief arrange topics and headings and subheadings as applicable and according to the format prescribed by your teacher 5 do your research this is the usual bottleneck for writers because research can take a long time especially if you don’t know how to work fast and have no idea what you’re looking for this is why it’s important to have an outline your outline will guide you on specific information you need to find so you don’t have to waste time reading lots of useless material the usual order of things is to study other materials that have been published on your topic since you need to produce your research paper fast you don’t have time to go about it the usual way to do fast research go to the library and take out books related to your topic scan the table of contents of each book find a chapter that seems related to any of the arguments in your outline and go to that chapter scan it quickly and to pick out relevant information for your reference including citation information read the context of the statement though to make sure you’re not misquoting the author if you scan and work fast you can find references for all your arguments in no time don’t get caught up reading what doesn’t apply to your research 6 now it’s time to write flesh out the points in paragraph form by using your outline as a guide let the ideas and write freely explain each argument in turn and respond to counter arguments persuasively with facts and data and with a conclusion supporting your thesis in a convincing way 7 edit edit edit polish up your writing make sure the ideas flow smoothly from one paragraph to another and that the presentation of arguments is cohesive edit grammar and punctuation eliminate excess tighten up your thesis statement introduction in conclusion these are the things that will leave a lasting impression writing research papers do not have to be drudgery welcome it as part of your growth and development as a person devoted to learning and education it will discipline you to keep challenging and improving yourself you can do it by applying this guide on how to write a research paper fast

Writing scientific papers: 3 Journal selection

peaceful for him right is your research interesting innovative enough to publish and I’ve got an example from the instructions to author from it from a journal that that’s coming up but a frequent reason for rejecting manuscripts is because the the editor does not consider that the research is sufficiently substantial you may have done an experiment for just one year and you want to publish it but the journal may expect you to be presenting results from two or three years research so this is quite common it’s a quite frequent reason for having manuscripts rejected and I I had a PhD student recently in Newcastle who was telling me that she thought it would be worthwhile to write up and publish some of the work that she had been doing with some of my wheat varieties in Newcastle and I was telling her well yes but people have been publishing research on this subject for 40 years and all you were doing is using different varieties but she said oh yes but it’s still going to be worthwhile then I was trying to explain to her that well you’ve got to find something new in the story that’s going to make it worthwhile to publish if there are going to be 50 other research publications looking at this subject which was salt responses in wheat and she’s got another ten genotypes of wheat that she’s looked at then nobody’s going to be interesting in publishing this unless there’s something special something that makes this interesting so ever think about that this final statement is worthwhile for you to consider as well if the journal accepts your manuscript for publication is it going to increase the journals impact factor and if after careful consideration you think well mmm I don’t know then maybe you should be looking for a different Journal or you should be redesigning the way that you present the information to make it more attractive to the journal now your research should be describing what’s in this world not the one on the left but I’ll show you the graph on the right hand side as well your research should be describing what’s on the right hand side the figure there but very often what is submitted to journals is represented by the figure on the left where we have poorly justified research poorly designed research poorly described research and little evidence of genuine progress in terms of an increase in the knowledge so you’ve got to make sure that what you are submitting to a journal is the figure on the right which is well justified research it needs to be done it is well designed research it is well described and there’s a clear impact clear increase in our knowledge as shown by the difference in the height of the two bars so the your target is the figure on the right hand side so let’s assume that you have something that is suitable for publishing I’m going to give now a few pieces of advice about journals to select and what and how to go to the next stage always start by reading the journals information for authors when I was doing most of my research I used to get that by going to the library and looking at the inside cover of the journals nowadays you do it all on their website first you need to identify whether it’s the right journal for your paper and here are some comments that I’ve taken from a number of journals in their section on information for authors and you can see the sort of comments that journals will make two guide authors in how to submit their manuscripts so here’s one that says descriptive reports in which no specific hypothesis is tested are unlikely to be accepted so how many of you write descriptive papers do any of you write papers just describing what you found rather than testing any particular hypothesis do you really do some oh but you get them published all right then we have field study results and more likely to be accepted if they use more than a single technique of data collection and analysis and we have papers must be original research and must not have already been published or be under consideration for publication elsewhere it’s like computers computer processing you can either have serial processing or you can have parallel processing now in terms of a scientific manuscript it has to be serial processing one after the other so if you write a paper you submitted to one journal and one journal only then when you get the results from that if it’s unsuccessful you submit it to another journal you do not submit your manuscript to two or three journals simultaneously I do know that that happens because I have seen through contacts that I have I have seen the essentially identical text appear in different publications so people are just copying pasting papers in several journals so once you have decided which journal you will submit the paper to you then have to read very carefully all of the instructions to authors which will give you guidance on how to write the text and I’ve got just one example that I’ll show you here which is annals of botany instructions for authors manuscript preparation and just focus on the text in in red it says for margins approximately 25 millimetre margins now this is a journal that’s published that is published in the UK and it uses the European metric system if you publish in an American Journal it will use the old imperial system feet and inches then it will tell you a margin of 1 inch for example this journal says all pages should be numbered sequentially and furthermore each line of the text should be numbered and it shows you how to find that in word under the the menu format and then it says further down make sure the language is English UK so you know there are different sorts of English there’s there’s my English which is UK English and then there’s American there’s US English and the Americans they don’t know how to spell there so a lot of their words are wrong and the Australians there they have their version of English as well so make sure they just use different words so make sure that you check which version of English you need to set your keyboard to for the journal that you’re going to be submitting to and not bothering to follow all the journals instructions it creates a bad impression from the start if I’m the journal editor and I have a quick look through your manuscript as it comes in to me and I find that you haven’t bothered to follow any of my journals instructions then it immediately puts me in in a bad mood it doesn’t make me favorable towards your manuscript so you’ve got to make sure you follow the instructions so this is your starting point question mark and that’s your finishing point question mark because at the beginning you don’t know how you’re going to start do you I was going to say you take the pen in your hand but nowadays you don’t actually use pens do you and I did I wrote most of my scientific papers were written with pen and paper well I started writing in the 1970s you see different century yes that shows you how old I am dear actually it was it was interesting maybe because when we were at school I remember this was in the sixth form we were taken on a special excursion this was a special sixth form student excursion to see a computer and we were driven in this minibus to this to this factory where they had this huge machine and they had all this paper going through wonderful yeah so I’ve got mine in my pocket right so that’s your starting point you don’t know where you’re going to start from you don’t know what the first word is going to be and you don’t really know where you’re going to end up but you’ve got to convert that from question mark into once upon a time d-dan d-dan d-dan you know their Chi biker and its got to finish up and they all lived happily ever after now the reason that I have used this analogy to the children’s story is it if you think about children’s stories they are written very simply as you turn the page of a children’s story book all of the text goes obviously clearly from the previous page doesn’t it it’s very easy to follow a children’s story it has to be easy otherwise the children can’t follow it you’ve got to take the same attitude when you are writing a scientific paper you don’t start your first sentence once upon a time I had this bright idea you may have had a good idea but but you’ve got to be thinking in that frame of mind because you’ve got to make sure that the way that you present the information is going to be easy even for a child to be able to understand so you’ve got to make sure that you start off the story with a clear definition of why it needs to be done then you describe what you did and then you summarize what the results are you say this is where we got to and this is therefore confirmed our original idea or our results have disproved this particular hypothesis but it’s a series of events that everybody can follow easily so let’s just assume that you have a good story to tell the secrets to writing and submitting a good-quality scientific paper which is actually true for any document the secrets are to be logical clear concise unambiguous consistent without factual errors and without any technical errors so you can do that then you’re writing a good-quality manuscript so I’ll explain what I mean by each of those if you don’t manage that you will find the reviewers will have difficulty reading and understanding what you wrote you will have comments on your reviewers report that say they couldn’t understand what you were doing it wasn’t clear and so on so what do I mean by each of those points logical it’s got to have flow it’s got to have obvious connection one step to the next so points need to go clearly from one to the next clear it has to be easy to read in a simple language in a simple language that’s easy to understand now I when I am correcting the English for scientists who sent me their manuscripts what I find myself doing very often with people from Serbia is that I’m cutting out a lot of the words because I find this is part of your culture it’s the way that you do it in Serbian if you’re writing a scientific manuscript you put in words that in English are not necessary so I spend a lot of my time going around mmm cutting it out and long sentences and very often you will use a phrase that is let’s say five words and I can reorganize that to use any two words so I find myself very often reorganizing sentences and making them shorter and therefore easier for others to read and to understand now I it’s easy for me to tell you this but it’s did it is a challenge for you to be able to follow that that approach but very often this will be a reason why manuscripts are rejected the the the English just doesn’t read nicely so I have got a few slides at the end of this part of the course on how to improve the English but in the time available I’m afraid it’s only one or two examples but it may it may help so concise no unnecessary words even a lot of english-speaking scientists from the UK they like to put in words which are not necessary and I’ve got one slide at the end which is an appendix of a book on scientific writing which will give you examples of the way that words are used unnecessarily and it will show you how you can just cut out the word you don’t need it because it has no information content I like to think about words in terms of their information content what information is it giving to the reader by having that word in and if the answer is it doesn’t tell you anything then it doesn’t need to be there so unambiguous only one way to interpret what you write consistent which means the same information every time you mention it table and figure data correctly reported in the text all the references cited in the reference in the text and in the reference list and so on and it should be without factual errors which means that you check for consistency between what the table shows the numbers in the tables and any information you put from the table in the text and without technical errors checked with the journal style to make sure that the formatting is consistent and this business of formatting I maybe I’m just very very strong but I like to see consistent formatting because I believe it it reflects the personality of the people who are writing the manuscript if they are inconsistent in the way that they type the information so that they have paragraph you know you starter for paragraph with the indent if they don’t if they’re not consistent in the spaces between lines if they’re not consistent in the way that they present the references then it tells me that their brains are not functioning in the right way to be a good quality scientist so I believe that consistency especially in formatting is a sign of a good quality researcher and no spelling mistakes you well know maybe you wouldn’t be surprised but I find a large number of manuscripts that are sent to me for checking to improve the English they have simple spelling mistakes in them so English words are not spelt correctly now the reason for that is that you are typing in Serbian when you’re typing English words but on a Serbian keyboard with your language in the computer wherever it’s set in my laptop it’s set up at the top you are typing in a keyboard that’s not an English keyboard and therefore when you are if you’re using words and I would imagine most people will use word you don’t see all the little red underlining for all the mistakes because your computer sets a Serbian so I mean every words a mistake as far as your computer is concerned but if you set the the language to English UK or us or whatever is needed then it will identify a few when you are typing a word that’s not in the computer’s memory then if it’s a simple English word that you’ve just typed the wrong letters for then it will tell you so you can identify that oh yes okay that’s that slide and again I said if I’m an editor of a journal I haven’t been an editor of a journal but I’ve been on editorial review boards if I’m the journal editor and the first page of your manuscript that I look at I find there’s got mistakes spelling errors formatting doesn’t look good then it automatically creates a bad impression on the quality of your research I already know that the quality of your manuscripts not going to be very good but because I believe this to be a quality of you as a researcher or you and your team as a researcher then I believe it’s important for you to make a good impression at the beginning so if there’s lack of care in putting your manuscript together that implies to me it suggests to me that there could be lack of care in doing the research you see so think about this very carefully and if there’s lack of care with the research maybe you’re not getting the truth maybe your manuscript reflects research like the left hand figure where the bars disappeared in Mugler rather than the one on the right hand side

Writing scientific papers: 3 Journal selection

peaceful for him right is your research interesting innovative enough to publish and I’ve got an example from the instructions to author from it from a journal that that’s coming up but a frequent reason for rejecting manuscripts is because the the editor does not consider that the research is sufficiently substantial you may have done an experiment for just one year and you want to publish it but the journal may expect you to be presenting results from two or three years research so this is quite common it’s a quite frequent reason for having manuscripts rejected and I I had a PhD student recently in Newcastle who was telling me that she thought it would be worthwhile to write up and publish some of the work that she had been doing with some of my wheat varieties in Newcastle and I was telling her well yes but people have been publishing research on this subject for 40 years and all you were doing is using different varieties but she said oh yes but it’s still going to be worthwhile then I was trying to explain to her that well you’ve got to find something new in the story that’s going to make it worthwhile to publish if there are going to be 50 other research publications looking at this subject which was salt responses in wheat and she’s got another ten genotypes of wheat that she’s looked at then nobody’s going to be interesting in publishing this unless there’s something special something that makes this interesting so ever think about that this final statement is worthwhile for you to consider as well if the journal accepts your manuscript for publication is it going to increase the journals impact factor and if after careful consideration you think well mmm I don’t know then maybe you should be looking for a different Journal or you should be redesigning the way that you present the information to make it more attractive to the journal now your research should be describing what’s in this world not the one on the left but I’ll show you the graph on the right hand side as well your research should be describing what’s on the right hand side the figure there but very often what is submitted to journals is represented by the figure on the left where we have poorly justified research poorly designed research poorly described research and little evidence of genuine progress in terms of an increase in the knowledge so you’ve got to make sure that what you are submitting to a journal is the figure on the right which is well justified research it needs to be done it is well designed research it is well described and there’s a clear impact clear increase in our knowledge as shown by the difference in the height of the two bars so the your target is the figure on the right hand side so let’s assume that you have something that is suitable for publishing I’m going to give now a few pieces of advice about journals to select and what and how to go to the next stage always start by reading the journals information for authors when I was doing most of my research I used to get that by going to the library and looking at the inside cover of the journals nowadays you do it all on their website first you need to identify whether it’s the right journal for your paper and here are some comments that I’ve taken from a number of journals in their section on information for authors and you can see the sort of comments that journals will make two guide authors in how to submit their manuscripts so here’s one that says descriptive reports in which no specific hypothesis is tested are unlikely to be accepted so how many of you write descriptive papers do any of you write papers just describing what you found rather than testing any particular hypothesis do you really do some oh but you get them published all right then we have field study results and more likely to be accepted if they use more than a single technique of data collection and analysis and we have papers must be original research and must not have already been published or be under consideration for publication elsewhere it’s like computers computer processing you can either have serial processing or you can have parallel processing now in terms of a scientific manuscript it has to be serial processing one after the other so if you write a paper you submitted to one journal and one journal only then when you get the results from that if it’s unsuccessful you submit it to another journal you do not submit your manuscript to two or three journals simultaneously I do know that that happens because I have seen through contacts that I have I have seen the essentially identical text appear in different publications so people are just copying pasting papers in several journals so once you have decided which journal you will submit the paper to you then have to read very carefully all of the instructions to authors which will give you guidance on how to write the text and I’ve got just one example that I’ll show you here which is annals of botany instructions for authors manuscript preparation and just focus on the text in in red it says for margins approximately 25 millimetre margins now this is a journal that’s published that is published in the UK and it uses the European metric system if you publish in an American Journal it will use the old imperial system feet and inches then it will tell you a margin of 1 inch for example this journal says all pages should be numbered sequentially and furthermore each line of the text should be numbered and it shows you how to find that in word under the the menu format and then it says further down make sure the language is English UK so you know there are different sorts of English there’s there’s my English which is UK English and then there’s American there’s US English and the Americans they don’t know how to spell there so a lot of their words are wrong and the Australians there they have their version of English as well so make sure they just use different words so make sure that you check which version of English you need to set your keyboard to for the journal that you’re going to be submitting to and not bothering to follow all the journals instructions it creates a bad impression from the start if I’m the journal editor and I have a quick look through your manuscript as it comes in to me and I find that you haven’t bothered to follow any of my journals instructions then it immediately puts me in in a bad mood it doesn’t make me favorable towards your manuscript so you’ve got to make sure you follow the instructions so this is your starting point question mark and that’s your finishing point question mark because at the beginning you don’t know how you’re going to start do you I was going to say you take the pen in your hand but nowadays you don’t actually use pens do you and I did I wrote most of my scientific papers were written with pen and paper well I started writing in the 1970s you see different century yes that shows you how old I am dear actually it was it was interesting maybe because when we were at school I remember this was in the sixth form we were taken on a special excursion this was a special sixth form student excursion to see a computer and we were driven in this minibus to this to this factory where they had this huge machine and they had all this paper going through wonderful yeah so I’ve got mine in my pocket right so that’s your starting point you don’t know where you’re going to start from you don’t know what the first word is going to be and you don’t really know where you’re going to end up but you’ve got to convert that from question mark into once upon a time d-dan d-dan d-dan you know their Chi biker and its got to finish up and they all lived happily ever after now the reason that I have used this analogy to the children’s story is it if you think about children’s stories they are written very simply as you turn the page of a children’s story book all of the text goes obviously clearly from the previous page doesn’t it it’s very easy to follow a children’s story it has to be easy otherwise the children can’t follow it you’ve got to take the same attitude when you are writing a scientific paper you don’t start your first sentence once upon a time I had this bright idea you may have had a good idea but but you’ve got to be thinking in that frame of mind because you’ve got to make sure that the way that you present the information is going to be easy even for a child to be able to understand so you’ve got to make sure that you start off the story with a clear definition of why it needs to be done then you describe what you did and then you summarize what the results are you say this is where we got to and this is therefore confirmed our original idea or our results have disproved this particular hypothesis but it’s a series of events that everybody can follow easily so let’s just assume that you have a good story to tell the secrets to writing and submitting a good-quality scientific paper which is actually true for any document the secrets are to be logical clear concise unambiguous consistent without factual errors and without any technical errors so you can do that then you’re writing a good-quality manuscript so I’ll explain what I mean by each of those if you don’t manage that you will find the reviewers will have difficulty reading and understanding what you wrote you will have comments on your reviewers report that say they couldn’t understand what you were doing it wasn’t clear and so on so what do I mean by each of those points logical it’s got to have flow it’s got to have obvious connection one step to the next so points need to go clearly from one to the next clear it has to be easy to read in a simple language in a simple language that’s easy to understand now I when I am correcting the English for scientists who sent me their manuscripts what I find myself doing very often with people from Serbia is that I’m cutting out a lot of the words because I find this is part of your culture it’s the way that you do it in Serbian if you’re writing a scientific manuscript you put in words that in English are not necessary so I spend a lot of my time going around mmm cutting it out and long sentences and very often you will use a phrase that is let’s say five words and I can reorganize that to use any two words so I find myself very often reorganizing sentences and making them shorter and therefore easier for others to read and to understand now I it’s easy for me to tell you this but it’s did it is a challenge for you to be able to follow that that approach but very often this will be a reason why manuscripts are rejected the the the English just doesn’t read nicely so I have got a few slides at the end of this part of the course on how to improve the English but in the time available I’m afraid it’s only one or two examples but it may it may help so concise no unnecessary words even a lot of english-speaking scientists from the UK they like to put in words which are not necessary and I’ve got one slide at the end which is an appendix of a book on scientific writing which will give you examples of the way that words are used unnecessarily and it will show you how you can just cut out the word you don’t need it because it has no information content I like to think about words in terms of their information content what information is it giving to the reader by having that word in and if the answer is it doesn’t tell you anything then it doesn’t need to be there so unambiguous only one way to interpret what you write consistent which means the same information every time you mention it table and figure data correctly reported in the text all the references cited in the reference in the text and in the reference list and so on and it should be without factual errors which means that you check for consistency between what the table shows the numbers in the tables and any information you put from the table in the text and without technical errors checked with the journal style to make sure that the formatting is consistent and this business of formatting I maybe I’m just very very strong but I like to see consistent formatting because I believe it it reflects the personality of the people who are writing the manuscript if they are inconsistent in the way that they type the information so that they have paragraph you know you starter for paragraph with the indent if they don’t if they’re not consistent in the spaces between lines if they’re not consistent in the way that they present the references then it tells me that their brains are not functioning in the right way to be a good quality scientist so I believe that consistency especially in formatting is a sign of a good quality researcher and no spelling mistakes you well know maybe you wouldn’t be surprised but I find a large number of manuscripts that are sent to me for checking to improve the English they have simple spelling mistakes in them so English words are not spelt correctly now the reason for that is that you are typing in Serbian when you’re typing English words but on a Serbian keyboard with your language in the computer wherever it’s set in my laptop it’s set up at the top you are typing in a keyboard that’s not an English keyboard and therefore when you are if you’re using words and I would imagine most people will use word you don’t see all the little red underlining for all the mistakes because your computer sets a Serbian so I mean every words a mistake as far as your computer is concerned but if you set the the language to English UK or us or whatever is needed then it will identify a few when you are typing a word that’s not in the computer’s memory then if it’s a simple English word that you’ve just typed the wrong letters for then it will tell you so you can identify that oh yes okay that’s that slide and again I said if I’m an editor of a journal I haven’t been an editor of a journal but I’ve been on editorial review boards if I’m the journal editor and the first page of your manuscript that I look at I find there’s got mistakes spelling errors formatting doesn’t look good then it automatically creates a bad impression on the quality of your research I already know that the quality of your manuscripts not going to be very good but because I believe this to be a quality of you as a researcher or you and your team as a researcher then I believe it’s important for you to make a good impression at the beginning so if there’s lack of care in putting your manuscript together that implies to me it suggests to me that there could be lack of care in doing the research you see so think about this very carefully and if there’s lack of care with the research maybe you’re not getting the truth maybe your manuscript reflects research like the left hand figure where the bars disappeared in Mugler rather than the one on the right hand side

Baena rotula con vinilos decorativos locales comerciales de Amador de los Ríos

El Ayuntamiento de Baena, con el objetivo de dar mayor vistosidad y atractivo a las calles del casco histÓrico de esta localidad, ha encargado a una empresa de impresiones de la ciudad la rotulaciÓn de varios escaparates de locales comerciales cerrados con vinilos decorativos.

MÁs informaciÓn Los vecinos participan en la intervenciÓn artÍstica. Los vecinos participan en la intervenciÓn artÍstica. / S. NÚÑez

Los vecinos de Baena llenan de arte la calle Amador de los RÍos La concejala de Comercio, Manuela LÓpez (PSOE), ha explicado que el Ayuntamiento ya tiene el permiso de siete propietarios de locales situados en la calle Amador de los RÍos que presentan menos dificultades para su decoraciÓn. En algunos de estos espacios ya se han iniciado los trabajos decorativos con una temÁtica que recuerda a la de los patios cordobeses. AdemÁs, uno de los vinilos servirÁ mejores macetas para cultivo indoor recordar una antigua confiterÍa de la calle.

Esta iniciativa se suma a la decoraciÓn que muchos vecinos han realizado en sus fachadas y a otros trabajos que lleva a cabo estas semanas el Ayuntamiento, como el mural de una fachada elaborado por el artista Sake Ink, que trabaja ahora en otro diseÑo semanasantero; la alfombra verde en las escaleras que comunican la calle Llana con AlbaicÍn y Barras de Oro; la sustituciÓn de 60 maceteros por tuyas de bola y plantas de romero rastrero y la ubicaciÓn de un jardÍn vertical en la Muralla.

Precisamente, para la ejecuciÓn del jardÍn, el alcalde, JesÚs Rojano, se ha reunido con el responsable de una empresa especializada de MÁlaga con el fin de que se puedan iniciar los trabajos en los prÓximos dÍas y la zona central de la Muralla quede decorada antes de los dÍas centrales de la Semana Santa.

Los narcos no descansan durante el estado de alarma un dron capta una narcolancha en Doñana

Buenos días. Arrancamos la jornada de hoy con la noticia de que Pedro Sánchez sacará adelante una nueva prórroga del estado de alarma, la sexta y supuestamente última, tras conseguir un acuerdo con los separatistas de ERC y el PNV. Hoy precisamente el presidente del Gobierno tiene una nueva videoconferencia con los presidentes autonómicos donde les trasladará la petición y comparecerá sobre las 14:00 horas para informar de las novedades.

Por su parte, la deuda pública experimentaría en 2020 un aumento de más de 20 puntos en el escenario 1 y de unos 25 en el escenario 2, mejores barbacoas portatiles hasta situarse en el 116,8% y el 120,6% del PIB, respectivamente. Esta ratio continuaría aumentando en los dos años siguientes: entre el 115,4% y el 125,6% en 2021 y entre el 118% y el 128,7% en 2022, en función de cada escenario.

También en la Rioja éste conductor tuvo que ser auxiliado por guardias civiles del SEPRONA tras quedar atrapado con su todoterreno en los márgenes del río Cedacos a su paso por la localidad de Autol. Tras ser rescatado y comprobar que se encontraba en buen estado fue multado por no justificar su presencia en ese lugar.

La ex presidenta madrileña se recupera favorablemente desde que ingresó en el hospital hace tan sólo cuatro días, y se encuentra mejor anímicamente. Mientras que el jueves expresaba deseos de salir adelante apelando a frases como «Dios te oiga» cuando le daban ánimo, hoy se ha mostrado positiva al ver que poco a poco el virus comienza a retroceder.

Los agentes de la Policía Nacional y Vigilancia Aduanera les seguían desde febrero, entonces ya interceptaron un cargamento de 1.000 kg de hachís navegando hacia Huelva como se observa en estas imágenes. Los investigadores decidieron darle hilo a los traficantes para llegar hasta los máximos responsables de la organización, y así interceptaron otros 1000 kg en marzo y hace unos días “explotaron” la operación deteniendo a los cabecillas en Sevilla. En total 16 detenidos por la policía que tampoco descansa durante el confinamiento.

El número ha sido vendido en Quintanar de la Orden y Villa de Don Fabrique, ambas en Toledo; Mollet del Vallés, Vilanova del Camí y Pineda del Mar, las tres en Barcelona; Albacete, Rianxo (La Coruña), Veguellina de Órbigo (León), Madrid, Torrejón de Ardoz (Madrid), Lorca (Murcia), Tarancón (Cuenca), San Sebastián (Guipúzcoa) y Santander.

Tres años más tardes, sufrió un atentado yihadista en Bombay (India) donde se encontraba de viaje oficial. Los comandos abrieron fuego contra hoteles de la ciudad. El suyo incluido. Aguirre contaría más tarde, con la icónica fotografía de sus calcetines, cómo escapó -ilesa de nuevo- de las balas reptando por el suelo.

En 2011, mientras se dirigía a disfrutar de una tarde de toros en la plaza del Bibio de Gijón, acompañada de su marido, su vehículo sufrió un accidente contra otro coche en la incorporación a una autopista. El vehículo quedó destrozado. Tanto Aguirre como su marido resultaron ilesos. De hecho, llegaron a tiempo a los toros.

El segundo premio, dotado con 750.000 euros por serie (75.000 euros al décimo), ha correspondido al número 21.816, y ha sido vendido en Girona, Adra (Almería), Melilla, Calzada de Calatrava (Ciudad Real), Telde (Las Palmas), Lleida, Aldaia (Valencia), Pamplona y Tudela, en Navarra; Llagostera (Girona), Nigrán (Pontevedra), Benidorm y San Miguel de Salinas y San Juan, las tres en Alicante.

A raíz de esto se ha decretado el cierre de escuelas, institutos, campus universitarios y casales cívicos de la comarca de l’Anoia, que es donde está situado el lugar del brote. Asi esto afecta a las poblaciones de Igualada, Jorba, Santa Margarida de Montbui, Vilanova del camí y Òdena.

Las imágenes que se pueden ver más arriba son del momento en que un dron de la Policía Nacional descubre una lancha semirrígida de diez metros de eslora que navegaba por el Guadalquivir hacia mar abierto con dos personas a bordo que se lanzaron al agua para intentar escapar. No lo consiguieron, los policías les detuvieron y recuperaron la embarcación con todo dispuesto para viajar a Marruecos para cargar hachís.

Junto a ella está ingresado en la sanidad pública madrileña su marido de 70 años, tras presentar ambos cuadros de fiebre y tos. Los dos se encuentran en la misma habitación, en planta, sin que haya sido preciso su ingreso en la UCI.

Los delincuentes ganan cada vez más protagonismo entre las multas que no cesan por el estado de alarma y los narcos no descansan durante el confinamiento. Los traficantes saben que la ausencia de gente en las calles les deja al descubierto pero también dificulta las tareas de seguimiento policial, y han decidido continuar con su actividad para aprovechar el alza de los precios de la droga fruto de la situación actual.

También se ha consignado en Hornachos (Badajoz), las localidades barcelonesas de Vic, Artés y La Románica; Figueres (Girona), Andoain, Pasai, Trintxerpe, Hernani y San Sebastián, todas ellas en Guipúzcoa; Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), Málaga, Cartagena (Murcia), Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Manises y Paterna, en Valencia; Medina de Rioseco y Valladolid, Abadiño (Vizcaya) y Zamora.

The Evolution Of Teclado Tfue Amazon

The sharp sell-off came after S&P Global, the company behind the S&P 500 index of top US companies, passed over Tesla for inclusion in the index – a move that had been expected to give Tesla’s share price another boost as index-fund investors added the stock to their portfolios. Etsy, the online marketplace for homemade products was a winner, gaining a place in the index.

Last week the US released new unemployment figures which suggest that the pace of recovery from the coronavirus recession is slowing. And over the weekend Donald Trump said he was looking to curb the US’s economic relationship with China, an announcement that could herald more trade disputes ahead.

“Scoring a goal, you can’t celebrate properly as fans or players because you’ve got to wait two or three minutes before it actually gets given … you want the game to flow and, if a goal is scored, for the emotions to take over,” he said. “The less you see the VAR get involved in matches, the better.”

From this weekend, Brosque will get his wish. A memo issued to clubs says video referees should not “go looking for infringements that are by definition not match changing”.

Video assistant referees: everything you need to know Read moreVARs should only get involved in obvious mistakes or missed incidents, with a high threshold of intervention and a focus on match-changing situations. Video referees have also been stripped of the power to suggest changing yellow-card decisions to dismissals where the on-field referee has issued a caution.

Off-the-ball incidents will still be looked at.

In tweaking the system, the memo acknowledges the changes “are not completely in line with the trial protocol” agreed with Fifa for the trial. But the weight of criticism from an already small fanbase has forced FFA’s hand.

The road from San Sebastián to A Coruña is one of big cities, pretty fishing towns, high cliffs and raging sea. It skirts the rugged Basque coast, runs through lush Cantabria and Asturias, and ends up in Galicia, on the wildly beautiful Costa de la Muerte.

“Typically, bubbles are unwound when the Fed takes away the punch bowl. Obviously, this is very unlikely to happen anytime soon,” Wolfe Research strategist Chris Senyek wrote on Tuesday. “However, this bubble can still be unwound by sustained economic disappointments.”

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TopicsRoad tripsBilbao holidaysFood and drinkSpain holidaysEurope holidaysSpanish food and drinkfeaturesShare on FacebookShare on TwitterShare via EmailShare on LinkedInShare on PinterestShare on WhatsAppShare on MessengerReuse this content

The Church of England tradition is one of tremendous flexibility. The discussion at the general synod about the wearing or non-wearing of robes was no big deal. It was simply legalising what has become common practice in the expression of that flexibility.

Tesla aims to raise $5bn in its biggest issue of new stock in a decade Read moreTesla, with Elon Musk as chief executive, has been one of the biggest winners of recent stock market rallies as investors have piled into tech firms during the pandemic. The company’s share price surged 74.1% in August alone and is up about 400% this year. The rise has made Tesla more valuable than some of the world’s largest automakers, including Toyota and Volkswagen.

Historians have suggested that Davison and other suffragettes were seen “practising” at grabbing horses in the park near her mother’s house and that they then drew lots to determine who should go to the Derby.

Sign up to the daily Business Today email or follow Guardian Business on Twitter at @BusinessDeskAll the major US stock markets were in the red on Tuesday, with the S&P 500 and the Dow down over 2%. While many traders see the sell-off in tech as a move by investors to take some profits after a historic boom, broader concerns about the US economy also appear to be worrying the markets.

San Sebastián is all about food, and there is so much to recommend. Stay a few minutes from the old town and its narrow streets and pintxo bars at arty Hotel Okako (doubles from €120 room only). The local custom is one pintxo and one drink in each bar. Try Txepetxa for anchovies, Nestor for steaks and Zeruko for molecular fare. For a sit-down weekday lunch, Ibai at Calle de Getaria 15 (no website) is a locals’ favourite.

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Illustration: Bek CruddaceAfter you’ve eaten and drunk all you can, get ready to do it again 100km away in Bilbao. Here, a fine place to stay is hotel Iturrienea Ostatua (doubles from €75 B&B). Wander around the stunning Guggenheim gallery to work up an appetite for Bilbao’s food. If your wallet can bear it, try Michelin-starred Nerua, with menus from €80 a head, inside Frank Gehry’s masterpiece. For something cheaper, swing by La Viña del Ensanche, a 90-year-old bar serving excellent pintxos and wine.

Next, drive 70km west into rugged, verdant Cantabria and the village of Santoña, staying at El Cantal (doubles from €60 B&B, on booking.com). Explore the cliffs, forts and ancient rock dwellings of Monte Buceiro peninsula, and Berria beach, with its mile of golden sand. Stop by a local bar or shop to try the anchovies, perhaps the town’s most famous export.

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Nerua restaurant, in Bilbao’s Guggenheim Photograph: Andoni EpeldeA 45km drive west is Santander, with rugged bays, white sands and ostentatious mid-20th century buildings. While staying at Le Petit Boutique Hotel (doubles from £65 B&B) take a stroll down El Sardinero beach, and catch a ferry to Playa de Somo across the bay, to enjoy fine views of the city. For food, Diluvio in the city centre is excellent or try pintxo specialist Casa Lita on seafront Paseo de Pereda.

Head west on the A-8 for 60km to San Vicente de la Barquera (top picture), a fishing port below the Picos de Europa mountains. Stop for a delicious seafood lunch at El Retiro, before driving 0n 35km to Llanes, in Asturias. Park in a side street and head for the central pedestrianised zone to Hotel Los Molinos (doubles from €60 room only). Saunter around the harbour drinking freshly poured Asturian cider and trying local delicasy percebes – goose barnacles. The area has plenty of beaches – check out Playa del Toro, just east of town.

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Plaza de la Constitucion in San Sebastián old town. Photograph: Getty ImagesIt’s another 90-minute drive (170km) west to Luarca. There, an excellent place to stay is Villa La Argentina (doubles from £90 B&B), an 1899 mansion with extensive gardens that is now an unusual hotel filled with antiques and objets d’art. In the harbour, enjoy the sweeping view of the town as it circles the bay and stretches up into the hills. For lunch, try El Barometro (5 Paseo del Muelle, unofficial Facebook page), where the peppers stuffed with shellfish and squid in their own ink are delicious.

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Berria beach, Santoña. Photograph: Getty ImagesTo break the two-hour drive along the coast to Ortigueira, in Galicia, stop at Rinlo for arroz caldoso con bogavante (€35), a soupy dish of rice with lobster at Porto de Rinlo.

Ortigueira is a beautiful town between mountains and sea. The place to stay is the Castaño Dormilon (doubles from €89 B&B), in a traditional building with modern interiors. For food, check out Bar O Coto (€15 menu of the day, no website), a 15-minute drive south on the CP-6113: it serves traditional homemade dishes such as caldeirada de pulpo (octopus) as well as pizzas. A lovely place to visit nearby is the small village of Loiba, some 20 minutes away to the north-east, and home to the “best bench in the world”. The bench, so inscribed, offers wonderful views of the cliffs and the roaring sea.

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Ortigueira. Photograph: Huckleberry MountainFinally, head south on the AG-64 for 109km (90 mins) to your final stop, A Coruña. After checking into Hotel Lois in the city-centre (doubles from €50 B&B), stroll along the promenade for teclado tfue 2km to the 55-metre Torre de Hércules (entry €3), the only Roman-built lighthouse still functioning. The food scene is excellent in A Coruña. For a welcoming atmosphere and classic, unpretentious food, try O Bebedeiro or Taberna de Cunqueiro.

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* London office prices could fall by 20% over two to three years, similar to the decline following the 2008 financial crash.

Negotiations with the EU are about to enter the final few weeks, and while May has said an agreement is 95% complete, crucial areas, including the fate of the Northern Ireland border, remain unresolved.

A no-deal Brexit would shorten the odds on a long UK recession Read moreA demand by EU negotiator Michel Barnier for a backstop that would keep the Irish border open to trade, even if that meant separating the province from the mainland and loba negra descargar gratis creating a border in the Irish sea, has been rejected by the prime minister.

The impasse has fuelled doubts that a deal can ever be agreed in what time is left before each side must seek ratification.

S&P Global Ratings credit analyst Paul Watters, said: “Our base-case scenario is that the UK and the EU will agree and ratify a Brexit deal, leading to a transition phase lasting through 2020, followed by a free trade agreement.

“But we believe the risk of no deal has increased sufficiently to become a relevant rating consideration. This reflects the inability thus far of the UK and EU to reach agreement on the Northern Irish border issue, the critical outstanding component of the proposed withdrawal treaty.”

Coming only a day after the chancellor said the failure to secure a deal would force him to hold an emergency budget, S&P’s analysis joins a welter of independent reports that forecast that a split from the EU without a deal will deala serious blow to the prospects of the UK economy. Last month rival agency Moody’s said the risks to the British economy had “risen materially” in recent months.

Failure to agree a deal with Brussels would lead to a sharp fall in the value of the pound, triggering higher inflation and a squeeze on real wages lasting for as long as three years, it warned.

Adding to the weight of opinion, the International Monetary Fund and and the OECD have also said that crashing out of the EU without a deal was a material risk to the UK, the EU and the global economy.

Sign up to the daily Business Today email or follow Guardian Business on Twitter at @BusinessDeskThe warnings are likely to be dismissed by leading Brexiteers as an extension of the Treasury’s “project fear”, which predicted steep falls in household incomes, house prices and inflation.

Jacob Rees-Mogg and Iain Duncan Smith told the chancellor ahead of the budget that he was being too gloomy about Britain’s economic prospects outside the EU, even if it meant coping with trade barriers at EU border posts.

Rees-Mogg argued that Britain’s economy would be set free by leaving the EU, and though he preferred a deal to secure frictionless trade, this would be counterproductive if it tied the UK to EU rules for many years.

But Britain’s national income has already grown more slowly this year than expected prior to the EU referendum, with GDP growth below its previous trend of 2% to 2.5% and with wages only just inching ahead of inflation this year.

S&P said leaving the EU without a deal would make matters much worse, pushing the UK into a moderate recession lasting between a year and 15 months, with GDP contracting by 1.2% in 2019 and 1.5% in 2020. After that, the economy would return to growth, it said, though the pace of growth would be moderate.

“By 2021, economic output would still be 5.5% less than what would have been achieved in a scenario with an orderly exit and transition period for the UK,” it said in its report, Countdown To Brexit: No Deal Moving Into Sight.

S&P said high street banks would be caught up in the downturn, though efforts to shore up their reserves over the last eight years would provide protection against rising corporate insolvencies and weaker house price values.

Housing associations would also come under financial pressure from a fall in house values. Meanwhile, insurers would need to plan for a downgrade in the UK’s credit rating, which would increase their borrowing costs.

Britain’s economy will suffer rising unemployment and falling household incomes that would trigger a recession should Theresa May fail to secure a deal to prevent the UK crashing out of the European Union next year, according to analysis by the global rating agency Standard & Poor’s.

Property prices would slump and inflation would spike to more than 5% in a scenario that S&P said had become more likely in recent months following deadlock with Brussels over a post-Brexit deal.

In a warning that included a possible downgrade to the UK’s credit rating, which would bring with it an increase in the Treasury’s borrowing costs, S&P said it still expected both sides in the Brexit talks to come to an agreement before next March, when the UK is scheduled to leave the European Union.

But it warned that the chance of a “no-deal” Brexit had risen in recent months to such an extent that it needed to warn international investors about the potential challenges ahead.

The S&P report said:

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Users do not have to live in Pennsylvania to play online casino games’ they simply must be physically present in the state when playing. The group predicts that the three upstate casinos would cannibalize the business of existing gambling options. Legal: online poker, sports betting & horse racing. However, most real money gambling sites do require a deposit and focus more on paid games than free ones. All of my real money casino reviews are of UKGC approved sites. Even in an era where sports wagering has exploded, a core demographic of bettors remains to play the races. Looking for decent slot games from a reliable and respectable casino software developer is an important step towards real money gambling.

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